Dictionary of Names and Societies

This is the dictionary of personalities and societies which interfered more or less with the birth and development of Freudian psychoanalysis. More entries will be available soon so you may register with our newsletter (see below) to keep in touch with our news and updates.


Alfred Erich Hoche (1865-1943)
Psychiatry professor at Fribour-en-Brisgau; a resolute opponent of psychoanalysis.

Alphonse Maeder (1882-1971)
Swiss psychotherapist who was for a long while the president of the Psychoanalysis Association from Zurich, he followed
Jung after his separation from Freud; later, Maeder will develop short analysis techniques and will join  himself the Oxford movement.

Ambroise-Auguste Liebeault (1823-1904)
French physician universally acknowledged as the founder of the famous school that became known as the Nancy School, or the Suggestion School and he is considered by many to be the father of modern hypnotherapy. (See also
Bernheim and Charcot).

Auguste Forel (1848-1931)
Swiss myrmecologist, neuroanatomist and psychiatrist, notable for his investigations into the structure of the human brain and that of ants. For example, he is considered a co-founder of the neuron theory.

Bertha Pappenheim (1859-1936)
Anna O. was the pseudonym of a patient of
Josef Breuer , who published her case study in his book Studies on Hysteria , written in collaboration with Sigmund Freud. (Click here to read a short account on the case written by Freud).

Carl Wernicke (1848-1905)
Psychiatry professor in Berlin, Breslau and Halle. He has discovered the language center from the brain. He is the author of a basic work on aphasia: Der apasische Symptomkomplex; Eine psychologische Studie auf  anatomischer Basis (Aphasic Syndrome; a Psychological Study Based on Anatomy), Breslau, 1874.

Dumeng Bezzola (1868-1936)
Psychiatrist born in Grisons, one of the chiefs of the anti-alcoholic movement.

Edouard Claparede (1873-1926)
Swiss medical psychologist and educator, the founder of the Rousseau Institute in Geneva, in 1912. Together with
Th. Flournoy , co-editor of the Psychological Archives.

Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926)
Psychiatry professor in Munchen since 1903 to 1922. He contributed to the systematical advancement of psychiatry, especially by distinguishing between  dementia praecox (schizophrenia) and manic-depressive psychosis. His main work, Psychiatrie, ein Lehrbuch fur Studierende und Arzte (Psychiatry, a  Handbook for Students and Doctors), Leipzig, 1883, represented for a long time an authority and has been many times republished.

Ernesto Lugaro (1870-1940)
Italian psychiatrist.

Franz Riklin (1878-1938)
Since 1902 to 1904 psychiatrist in Burgholzli and
Jung 's collaborator in his experiences concerning the free associations. Their results were published in  common, in 1905, and were entitled: Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die Assoziationen Gesunder. Since 1904-1909 doctor at Rheinau Clinic. Married to one of Jung's cousin; he followed Jung after his separation from Freud, but he didn't practise psychoanalysis.

Gabriel Anton (1858-1933)
Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist, professor in Graz and Halle; known as a brain surgeon.

Gustav Aschaffenburg (1866 – 1944)
Psychiatry and neurology professor in Heidelberg, then in Halle and Cologne; since 1939, practitioner and professor in Baltimore and Washington. His  attack against Freud is included in a speech, which he held on the 27th of May 1906 at the Congress of Neurologists and Alienists from South-Western Germany, in Baden-Baden: The Relations Between Sexual Life and the Occurrence of Nervous and Mental Diseases.

Gustav Wolff (1865-1941)
Psychiatry professor in Bale, partisan of neo-vitalism and teleology.

Herbert Silberer (1882-1922)
Viennese psychoanalyst, member of the
Viennese Association since 1910, known for his works about symbolism and the symbolism of alchemy. He committed suicide. His contribution is: Report Regarding a Method that Allows Provoking and Observing Certain Manifestations of Symbolical Hallucination, Jahrbuch, I, 2-1909. 40 years later, Jung writes: "The merit  belongs to H. S., what a pity he died prematurely, after he discovered, the first one, the secret sources that lead from alchemy to the psychology of unconscious". G.W. 14-II, par. 447.

Heymann Steinthal (1823-1899)
German philologist and philosopher, often quoted by
Jung in his work Psychology of the Unconscious. Steinthal was the publisher of Zeitschrift fur Volkerpsychologie und Sprachwissenschaft ( The Magazine of Psychology of Nations and Linguistics).

Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893)
French neurologist, chief-physician at Salpetriere, known for his works about hysteria and hypnosis, he had a decisive influence upon Freud. The latest one  studied with Charcot between 1885-1886, translated his lectures' textbook into German (Neue Vorlesungen uber die Krnakheiten des Nervensystems, insbesondere uber Hysterie, Vienna, 1886, which are the translation of Lecons du mardi a la Salpetriere, Paris, 1889-1892) and gave his first name to his eldest son. (See also
Bernheim and Liebault ). (Click here to read an extensive presentation).

Josef Breuer (1842-1925)
Austrian physician and physiologist, he represents, together with Freud, the author of the
Studies On Hysteria, Vienna, 1895. But he remains in the  history of psychoanalysis due to his psychotherapeutical experiences with Anna O., which will be continued by Freud, which will pave the way for his revolutionary discoveries in psychoanalysis.

Joseph Dejerine (1849-1917)
Swiss neurologist, he was manager at Salpetriere, Paris.

Karl Heilbronner (1869-1914)
German psychiatrist, he managed the universitary clinic from Utrecht.

Leopold Lowenfeld (1857-1923)
Psychiatrist in Munchen, he published in 1901 Freud's work Uber der Traum (On Dream), in the Grenzfragen des Nerven-und Seelenlebens collection, which was printed by himself together with H. Kurella. Otherwise, he included contributions signed by Freud in two of his own books; Die Freudsche psychoanalustische Methode (Freud's Psychoanalithical Method) in Die psychischen Zwangserscheinungen (The Obsessional Psychical Phenomena), Wiesbaden, 1904 and Meine Ansichten uber die Rolle der Sexualitat in der Atiologie der Neurosen (My Opinions Concerning the Role of Sexuality in the Etiology of  Neuroses) G.W., V, in the fourth edition of Sexualleben und Nervenleiden (Sexual Life and Nervous Affections), Wiesbaden, 1906.

Ludwig Frank (1863-1935)
Neurologist in Zurich,
Forel's supporter.

Manfred Bleuler
Born in 1903, famous psychiatrist, as well as his
father, professor at Zurich  University and manager at the Asylum in Burgholzli since 1942 to 1969.

Max Isserlin (1879-1941)
Neurologist in Munchen; he was for a long time
Kraepelin's assistant. He died in England where he lived as a refugee.

Otto Gross (1877-1920)
Medical studies in Graz, then assistant to
Kraepelin in Munchen. 

Otto Rank (1886-1939)
His name was initially Rosenfeld, but he changed it because of a conflict with his father. Between 1906-1915 he was the secretary of the
Vienna Society for Psychoanalysis, whose protocols he was drafting. In 1907, in spring, was published his book: Der Kunstler; Ansatz zu einer Sexualpsychologie (The Artist; Essay of Sexual Psychology). He was promoted in 1912 as doctor in philosophy from the University of Vienna. Rank was the  first analyst who was not a physician and was also a founding member of the Committee. He left psychoanalysis at the beginning of 20-ties; he lived in the USA since1935 till his death. (Click here to read an extensive presentation).

Paul Eugen Bleuler (1857-1939)
Since 1898 to 1927, psychiatry professor at the Zurich University and manager at the Burgholzli Asylum, succeeding his master
Forel. Before this he has been manager at the Rheinau Asylum (a canton from Zurich) for 12 years. One of the great pioneers of psychiatry, especially of the dementia parecox, which he first called "schizophrenia". Being directly influenced by the psychoanalytical method, he will have important contributions to the knowledge of autism and ambivalence. It seems that he was already  receptive to Freud's ideas since 1901, when he asked Jung to expound The Interpretation of Dreams before the doctors from Burgholzli. During his lifetime, he pleaded against alcoholism. His Lehrbuch der Psychiatrie (Handbook of Psychiatry), Berlin (1916), still enjoys authority.

Paul Sollier (1861-1933)
Psychiatrist in Boulogne-sur-Seine.

Pierre Janet (1859-19470)
Psychology professor at College de France. He was one of the first who admitted the unconscious, but he refused psychoanalysis.
Jung attended his courses at Salpetriere between 1902-1903.

Philippe (Fulop) Stein (1867-1918)
Hungarian psychiatrist educated in Vienna. He took part between 1906-1907 in the associative experiences at Burgholzli, after he had met 
Bleuler at the International Antialcoholic Congress in Budapest, in 1905. Founder of the antialcoholic movement of Hungary. He abandoned psychoanalysis in 1913 and worked since then as a neurologist at the  workers' hospital in Budapest.

Robert Eugen Gaupp (1870-1920)
Neurology and psychiatry professor in Tubingen. Responsible editor of Zentralblat fur Nervenheilkunde und Psychiatrie.

Theodore Flournoy (1854-1920)
Swiss psychiatrist. Influenced, as well as
Claparede, by William James' thought. Jung used Flournoy's works, particularly Frank Miller's case, in his Psychology of the Unconscious, as well as his researches upon a medium published in From India to Planet Mars.

Vienna Psychoanalytical Society (Wiener Vereinigung fur Psychoanalyse)
Freud's disciples were solitary meeting in his waiting room under the auspices of the 
Wednesday evenings. In 1909, the group became the Vienna Psychoanalytical Society. Since 1910, the meetings took place at the doctors' seminar. (See also Hermann Nunberg's introduction to the minutes: Minutes of the Vienna Psychoanalytical Society, ed. H. Nunberg and E. Federn, New York, 1962).

Wilhelm Fliess (1858-19280
Berliner otho-rhyno-laringologist, best friend of Freud before 1900 - according to
Jones, vol. I, chapter XIII, and Freud's Birth of Psychoanalysis. After breaking off their relationship, Freud adopted a very  critical attitude towards Fliess' scientific work, (which was) to a high degree speculative. (Click here to read an extensive presentation).

Wilhelm Jensen (1837-1911)
German playwright and novelist, born in Holstein, who was of a very wide reading at his time. One of his short stories, Gradiva, published in Schriften zur angevandten Seelenkunde, fasc. I, Leipzig and Vienna, 1907, was psychoanalytically commented by Freud in his work Delusion and Dreams in Jensen's Gradiva.

Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
Psychology and physiology professor in Leipzig, his famous works in the field of experimental psychology foretell
Jung's associative tests.

< to be continued >

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